How Celox Stops Bleeding

How Celox Works

Celox™ granules are actually very high surface area flakes. When they come in contact with blood, Celox™ swells, gels, and sticks together to make a gel like clot, without generating any heat. Celox™ does not set off the normal clotting cascade, it only clots the blood it comes directly into contact with.

Gelling Red Blood Cells

This mode of action has a number of major benefits:

  • Works in hypothermic conditions*.
  • Clots heparinized blood*.
  • No heat generated*.
  • Leftover material is naturally absorbed by the body.

Celox works on hypothermic (cold) blood*

Clot speed in hypothermic blood

Severe traumatic blood loss quickly leads to the victim becoming hypothermic, irrespective of the outside temperature. Hypothermic blood is coagulopathic (does not clot normally) and so becomes harder to stop.  Celox effectiveness in hypothermic conditions has been tested independently3.

Blood thinners (anticoagulants)

Celox works on casualties using blood thinners (anticoagulants) and anti-platelet therapy such as aspirin.  An increasing number of people are on anticoagulants, presenting an extra challenge if they are injured.  Celox has been tested and shown to clot heparinized blood*.  Further laboratory tests on blood containing heparin or warfarin have been published 1,2,3.

Published results use Celox in patients with severe coagulation problems4. These are cases of bleeding after complex surgery where other hemostatic agents had failed to control the problem.

“Celox simply clots the blood once it comes directly into contact with it, thus not setting off the normal clotting cascade. Since chitosan works independently from the physiological clotting mechanisms, it has also been proved to work in the presence of common anti-coagulants such as warfarin as well as in the presence of heparin

Ref. 4.

No Heat.

Celox does not produce any heat at all when it is used*, unlike some mineral-based hemostats.

Proven safe

Celox™ is made with chitosan, a natural polysaccharide. Chitosan has a known metabolic pathway. That means any left in the body is broken down by the body’s normal enzymes and converted into materials normally present in the body. This is unlike other hemostats that can leave mineral residuals in the body6,7.   Chitosan is digested by lysozyme, a human enzyme which is present is tears, saliva and mucus. It breaks down to give glucosamine a sugar already present in the body and helps lubricate joints8.

Celox Flakes

The chitosan in Celox is a specific high quality grade selected for medical use from a shellfish source and the product has been through extensive safety testing to FDA requirements and the most stringent class of European Medical Device regulations. As part of this work the chitosan has been tested on human subjects with confirmed fish or shrimp hypersensitivity and none of the subjects showed any skin reaction to the chitosan5.

  1. Laboratory assessment of a new hemostat able to clot blood containing anticoagulant. Johnson L et al. SAWC, April 2008, San Diego
  2. Chitosan arrests bleeding in major hepatic injuries with clotting dysfunction: an in vivo experimental study in a model of hepatic injury in the presence of moderate systemic heparinisation. Millner R, Lockhart AS, Marr R. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2010: 92. [pdf]
  3. Hemostatic effect of a chitosan linear polymer (Celox) in a severe femoral artery bleeding rat model under hypothermia or warfarin therepy. Koksal O et al. Turk J Trauma & Emerg Surg. 2011; 17 (3):199-204.
  4. accessed 13 July 2012.
  5. Medtrade data on file.
  6. Moeng SF, Moar JJ. Quikclot masquerading as Glazer shot: a new forensic pathology artefact? Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2012; 33(3): 238-241.
  7. Hoggarth A, Alden M. Evaluation of the use of hemostatic agents and the residual particles left in the wound. Presented at Symposium for Advanced Wound Care, Anaheim, 2010
  8. Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 1992, Vol 14 August

* In laboratory testing Celox was effective on heparinized blood, at 65 °F blood temperature and did not increase in temperature during use.   Data on file, Medtrade.


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